espresso machines
  • [19/Jan/2012]
    LightPointe New Product
    LightPointe Introduces NEW Carrier-Grade Gigabit Capacity Backhaul System .. more
View All


Physical effects on FSO systems
Addressable market for FSO system
Application for FSO

Physical effects on FSO systems

Back to top
Q : What is the affect of rain on Optical Wireless systems?
A : The affects of rain on our system are directly related to the SIZE of the water droplets. Larger diameter droplets are better, smaller are worse. Rain is larger droplets, mist is medium-size droplets and fog is very small droplets.
Q : Can you elaborate on the LARGER size of water droplets on FSO?
A : Large droplets:

No matter what size they are, water droplets will always form a sphere or spheroid shape - not a "teardrop" shape as you might see in artwork. This round shape may distort or bend the optical ray of light (a ray is defined as a normal to the wave front) but WILL NOT usually BLOCK it completely or block it for a long period of time
Q : How about SMALLER water droplets then?
A : Small droplets:

The smallest sizes of water droplets absorb MORE of the optical energy from the laser. As the SIZE of the droplets GROWS, the affect on the system is LESS and less severe. As water droplets increase in size, of course, they fall as rain.
Q : How about FOG then? They are minute water droplet
A : FOG has the largest and the most severe affect on the FSO system because, fog is simply the SMALLEST size of water droplet that can exist at a particular temperature and relative humidity without growing larger and falling as rain. As the fog forms into rain (clouds are a form of "fog") the optical energy begins to penetrate the rain. As the fog turns to rain the visibility increases and more optical energy is received at the other end.
Q : Is there any way we can mitigate the rain effects on FSO system?
A : A product called RAIN-X solution could be applied to the face of the linkhead. RAIN-X fills the micro pores in the glass and the water sheets up and runs off and would not affect the transmitted powerin any way.

We have seen RAIN-X increase fade margin by 6 dB under certain highly atomized water conditions.

In all of these cases, more Fade Margin will help
Q : What IF I suspect that the problem could be caused by RAIN?
A : If you suspect a problem with rain related, there are some simple questions which you can asked:

1. How many "fog" like affects were there along with the rain affects?
(Fog is the problem, not rain!)

2. Was the rain hitting a warm, paved city and turning to fog?

3. Was there very fine mist falling with the rain?

4. Was it foggy at low altitudes with rain falling from above through the fog?

5. Was the rain falling in large drops, hitting a surface in front of the Linkhead and forming smaller droplets from the impacts?
(It could be that there is a wall or flat surface in front of the Linkhead, the rain affects could be much more severe than what you would expect)
Q : What if the problem is caused by Q5 that you mentioned?
A : A shelter would prevent this "doubling" of the affect of the rain coming down and then bouncing back up)

Q : How about Haze? Do they affect the FSO system?
A : NO, haze will only reduce the received optical signals at the other end. IF you have correctly designed the operating distance of FSO to work with the recommended Fade Margin limits, your FSO system should NOT be affected

Addressable market for FSO system

Back to top
Q : Can FSO systems fulfill the demanding needs of carriers/service providers
A : FSO technology meets a variety of carrier needs.

1. FSO equipment is simple and easy to install. That allows metro service providers to acquire target customers very quickly in comparison to fiber installs.

2. Easy upgrades will allow service providers to retain customers as their bandwidth requirements change (no forklift upgrades).

3. FSO products allow carriers to gain significant leverage in their capital by lowering the cost of "wiring" buildings for high-bandwidth access. That allows them to gain an acceptable return on their capital investment with a lower rate of monthly telecommunications revenue.

4. FSO systems eliminate or avoid wasted capital,service providers only have to deploy when they have customers. This "build as they come" model allows service providers to deploy infrastructure only once a customer is acquired. This offers better alignment between capital expenditure and cash flows.
Q : How can FSO Technologies add value to service provider's business?
A : FSO Technologies outdoor wireless solutions for wireless service providers accelerate momentum for 3G and 4G networks and provide backhaul aggregation connectivity in established and emerging growth markets where microwave, unlicensed RF and leased lines are insufficient, too expensive or impossible to deploy due to crowded spectrum and licensing issues.

FSO Technologies’s outdoor wireless solutions for wireless service providers offer an alternative to other fixed wireless options, with key features of high-bandwidth up to 1.25 Gbps, security and simple license-free operation.

FSO Technologies’s outdoor wireless solutions are the choice of leading wireless service provider customers worldwide
Q : How about the FSO market for Enterprise Market?
A : FSO Technologies's outdoor wireless solutions earn high marks in Enterprise networking installations for bridging two or more buildings in classic LAN-to-LAN backbone connectivity with extraordinarily high bandwidth up to 1.25 Gbps.

FSO Technologies’s product family includes point-to-point Optical Wireless connectivity solutions based on free-space optics technology—as well as our latest breakthrough point-to-point solution with fully integrated switching that blends Optical Wireless and unlicensed RF to achieve 99.999% uptime.

FSO Technologies’s outdoor wireless solutions are the choice of thousands of Enterprise customers worldwide.

Application for FSO

Back to top
Q : Where can I use FSO system?
A : Free-space optics (FSO) provides a proven and economical metro-access alternative where legacy wireless and conventional fiber optics fall short

Q : Is FSO different from fiber optics?
A : The technology of FSO is very similar to fiber optics, except the medium is air instead of fiber. However, FSO offers many advantages when compared to fiber
Q : Can you elaborate on how you can bridge the optical dead zone with FSO
A : Free-space optics (FSO) is an optical technology-let there be no doubt about that. FSO also is a simple concept. It involves the transmission of voice, video, and data through the air using lasers. FSO has been deployed successfully for more than two decades. It's not a disruptive technology; it's more of an enabling technology that promises to deliver that ever-elusive high-speed optical bandwidth to the ultimate end users
Q : In this case, what are the advantages of using FSO as compared to fiber cables?
A : FSO offers some flexibilities that fiber cables are not capable of delivering, they are:-

1.Its deployment requires a fraction of the TIME and COST of conventional fiber networks, FSO allows service providers to accelerate their deployment of metro optical networks as well as extend optical capacity to anyone who needs it. It also represents a zero sunk-cost solution.

2.As opposed to fiber, FSO can be REDEPLOYED if your customer moves or cancels service.

3.In addition to providing service without the need to dig trenches, FSO also obviates the need to buy expensive spectrum (and thus requires no FCC or municipal license approvals), which distinguishes it clearly from fixed wireless technologies.
Q : Is FSO a wireless technology? Do I need license to operate?
A : FSO should not be classified as a wireless technology.

There is NO licensing requirements for FSO system worldwide.

Its similarity to conventional optical solutions will enable a seamless integration of access networks with optical core networks and help to realize the vision of an all-optical network.
Q : Why FSO is getting popular in its applications?
A : The usage of FSO is mainly driven by demands for more bandwidth and growings appetite for "on-demand" connectivity from users.

As the growth in end-user needs for immediate high bandwidth outstrips network deployments, service providers find themselves stranded. They are stranded both in terms of invested capital and invested resources, without the expected and necessary revenues to support those investments.

Further aggravating this challenge is increasing competition. Service providers must alleviate capital concerns and identify tools that will allow them not only to stay ahead of the competition, but also remain in business.
Q : Why do you think FSO is a "safer" bet?
A : FSO products are field-proven and customer-deployed. The products are quickly and easily installed into any network.

This speed advantage becomes clear in light of the several-month average lead time to buy fiber and the six months it can take to obtain construction permits. FSO eliminates this bottleneck, while the technology's ease of installation and flexible reuse or redeployment (no forklift upgrades) eliminates the risk of stranding capital for fiber installation to a particular building.

With service providers actively looking for a low-cost alternative to existing technologies to address ever-increasing price wars, FSO offers economical, high-bandwidth connectivity

Meanwhile, given the current market environment, service providers are looking to minimize their execution risk